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Related post: The application of tobacco to wounds or Carvedilol 12.5 Mg bruises is not without danger. E. G. Gar- vin, 1913, has Purchase Carvedilol Online reported the death of a girl of six and one-half years, forty- five minutes after the administration of less than 1.5 Gm. of tobacco by enema, against pinworms. In other cases, the time of death has varied from three minutes to seven hours. Prompt death has also occurred from swallowing nicotin plant spray (Feil, 1916). Toxicity. Nicotin is one of the most fatal and rapid of poisons; the vapor arising from a glass rod moistened with it and brought near the beak of a small bird causes it to drop dead at once, and 2 drops placed on the gums of a dog may cause a similar result. The fatal dose for a man is about 60 mg.; of tobacco, about 2 Gm. It acts with a swift- ness equaled only by hydrocyanic Buy Carvedilol acid. In view of the Order Carvedilol Online high nicotin content of to- bacco (one cigar contains a quantity of nicotin which would prove fatal to two persons, if directly injected into the circulation), also because of its popular distribution, it appears astonishing that fatal nicotin poisoning is not more common; but just this wide distribution and knowledge of the drug form the safeguard, as also the marked taste. Fia. 13. Nicotin. Successive positions of frog poisoned with 25 mg. nicotin. Symptoms. In lighter cases, such as commonly occur in smoking, the peripheral and nauseant actions predominate. There is first an increased flow of saliva, partly reflexly through the mechanical irritation of smoke, but mainly by direct stimulation of the ganglia through the nicotin. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea soon appear. The sweat glands are also affected in a peculiar manner: There is a sensation of oncoming sweat, which does not actually break out. A sensation of exhaustion appears very early partly as the result of nausea, but mainly as the first indica- tion of central collapse action. Palpitation Carvedilol 6.25 Mg is also noted. Severe cases show immediate faintness, prostration and muscular weak- ness; severe nausea, vomiting and diarrhea; followed quickly by convul- sions and collapse (Garvin). The effects of poisoning with pure nicotin, which have been very Carvedilol 125 Mg carefully studied experimentally on man, bear the greatest resemblance to the above. After i to 4 mg. there were burning in the mouth, Carvedilol 3.125 Mg a scratching sensation in the pharynx, increased sali- vation, a sensation of heat spreading from the region of the stomach over Carvedilol Online the whole body; excitement with headache now appeared, then vertigo, confusion, disturbed vision and hearing, photophobia, dryness in mouth, cold extremities, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Respiration quickened, but difficult. Pulse at Carvedilol 6.25 first increased, then irregular. After fortyrve minutes there was syncope, with clonic spasms. Recovery occurred, but a general depression persisted for three days. NICOTIN 313 The treatment, aside from the chemic, consists of coffee and other stimulants and in meeting the symptoms. Emetics will usually not be necessary. The postmortem appearances are not characteristic, although Carvedilol Metoprolol large doses cause, in animals, anemia of the meninges and peculiar anatomic changes in the cortical nerve- cells. When taken by the mouth, there may be gastric and intestinal hyperemia, since nicotin is sufficiently alkaline to be somewhat Carvedilol 12.5 caustic. The odor may furnish a valu- able indication. The proof^ of the poison after its separation may be had by its odor and by obtaining its physiologic actions on frogs. The muscular tremors and the position which a frog assumes after nicotin are highly characteristic (Fig. 13). A control animal should, of course, be used. Purchase Carvedilol The chemic tests are of no practical importance, since very similar reactions are given by coniin and by a ptomain. Nicotin is very resistant to putrefaction, and has been isolated from the decomposed bodies of animals three Order Carvedilol months after death. HABITUAL USE OF TOBACCO The question of the effects of smoking has been largely discussed with a rather unscientific extremeness, some contending that it is entirely harm- less when moderately used; whereas, on the other hand, an enthusiastic French writer has gone so far as to attribute the defeat of his nation in the war of 1870 to the prevalence of Carvedilol 12 Mg cigarette smoking. Of the two views, the former would seem to come nearest the truth if the stress is laid upon the word Buy Cheap Carvedilol "moderate." Since, next to caffein, nicotin is the alkaloid most widely used, an im- partial discussion of this question is important. Composition of Tobacco Smoke. The effects of the smoke are due practically entirely to the nicotin contained in it. There are other toxic constituents, but their quantity is too small to be practically important. This has been proved both by chemical considerations and by animal experiments (Lee, 1908; K. B. Lehmann). Nicotin exists in tobacco mainly in the form of salts of organic acids (Garner, 1908). By the heat of smoking, these are largely dissociated, a part of the nicotin being burned, and a part passing into the smoke as free nicotin (Lehmann, 1909). The drier the tobacco and the greater the heat, the less nicotin will escape destruction. Moist tobacco, especially cigars, therefore, produce severer effects. This is more important than the nicotin content of the original tobacco (Lee, 1908). In experiments, between 15 and 90 per cent, of the nicotin present in the tobacco are recovered from the smoke; but a greater part of this is Carvedilol Tablets exhaled or expectorated: in natural (intermittent) smoking, the aspirated smoke contains only a sixth of the nicotin. About i to Carvedilol 25mg 1.4 mg. of nicotin would actually be absorbed from a cigar (Lehmann, 1907). In cigarette smoking, where inhalation is commonly practised, the percentage absorbed would be relatively high, thus accounting for its reputed deleterious effects. The average nicotin content of cigarettes (1.69 per cent.) is rather lower than that of other forms of tobacco (leaf, 3.04, cigars, Metoprolol Carvedilol 1.52; chewing, 1.14); nor is there anything in the popular notion that cigarettes contain opium or other added narcotics (Thurston, 1915). Other Toxic Constituents. These are formed by combustion, and vary greatly according to conditions. As an illustration, Lee found in the smoke of jooGm. of tobacco, besides 1.165 Gm. of nicotin, the following: Pyridin bases, 0.146 Gm., chiefly pyridin and collidin; hydrocyanic acid, 0.08 Gm.; ammonia, 0.36 Gm.; CO, 410 c.c. The pyridin bases act somewhat similarly to nicotin, but with important differences (Lee). Pyridin is a strong local irritant with low toxicity, a 10 per cent, solution has been used by atomizer in asthma and fetid bronchitis. It produces first dyspneic then shallow respiration. Brunton and Tunnicliffe (J. Physiol., 17:292) refer the effects mainly to sensory paralysis. Large doses arrest the Carvedilol 3.125 heart. The hydrocyanic acid in the smoke t a cigar amounts only to 0.002 to 0.5 mg., and would have no significance (Lehmann and Gundermann, 1912). If a large number of persons smoke Buy Carvedilol Online in a confined atmosphere, the
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